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Are there common and high-bottom plasma types?

Update time : 2020-04-15

Source : General Biosystems

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Are there common and high-bottom plasma types?

  Plasma is separated from fresh whole blood, which contains plasma proteins and coagulation factors. In clinical practice, fresh frozen plasma can be used to treat patients with liver disease with low coagulation function.

  In the early 20th century, Landstrom of the University of Vienna in Austria discovered that red blood cells had agglutination, and subsequently discovered the first human blood group system, the ABO blood group system. He found that there are two antigens A and B on the human erythrocyte membrane. Those with A antigen are type A blood, those with B antigen are type B blood, and those without A and B antigens are type O blood, and both A and B antigens Some were AB blood type. With the continuous development of science and technology, researchers have proposed the importance of blood type identification for patients' blood transfusion treatment, and the concept of ensuring safe blood transfusion through blood cross-matching experiments. For example, if the blood type of the recipient is type A, there is A antigen on the surface of his red blood cells, and anti-B antibodies are present in the plasma. Once blood type B is mistakenly imported, a large amount of B antigen and anti-A antibodies in the plasma will be brought in. Exogenous anti-A antibody binds to the recipient's type A red blood cells, which will cause the recipient's red blood cells to lyse. Similarly, the recipient's anti-B antibody will also lyse the imported B type red blood cells, resulting in Hemolysis is the main transfusion reaction. Blood recipients may have symptoms of chills, fever, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, hemoglobinuria, and anemia.

  The type A blood transfusion is the same for people with type B blood. People with type O blood do not have A and B antigens on the surface of red blood cells, but anti-A and anti-B antibodies are present in the plasma. If a person with type O blood is infused with type A blood or type B blood, the imported red blood cells with A or B antigens will be attacked by anti-A or anti-B antibodies, which also causes hemolytic reactions. Conversely, if a person with blood type A or B is transfused with type O blood, although there is no A or B antigen on the imported red blood cells, there are anti-A and anti-B antibodies in the imported plasma, which can also make the recipient Hemolysis occurs, but it differs only in degree. Therefore, in general, only in some special circumstances or emergency situations, when blood transfusion is required and there is no same blood type, a small amount of blood type O can play the role of universal blood. Obviously this is only a last resort.

  In clinical treatment, there is only one exception, that is, the plasma of a person with AB blood can be transfused to a patient with non-AB blood. This is because there is neither anti-A antibody nor anti-B antibody in the plasma of a person with blood type AB, so hemolysis will not occur in the recipient.

  It can be seen that due to the presence of antigens on the surface of red blood cells and the presence of antibodies in plasma, even if it is not a whole blood transfusion, only the blood transfusion should ensure the same blood type or compatibility.

  In recent years, with the continuous development of blood transfusion technology, high-concentration and high-purity blood products have been gradually applied in clinic, which can not only improve the curative effect, reduce adverse reactions, but also save blood sources.