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What is the difference between genetic engineering and cloning

Update time : 2020-04-15

Source : General Biosystems

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What is the difference between genetic engineering and cloning

  Genetic engineering refers to strict design in accordance with people's wishes, and through in vitro DNA recombination and transgenic technology to give organisms new genetic characteristics, thereby creating new types of biological products and biological products more in line with people's needs. Because genetic engineering is designed and constructed at the DNA molecular level, it is also called DNA recombination technology. The result is a recombinant DNA molecule whose principle is genetic recombination.

  Cloning refers to the asexual reproduction of animals. That is, there must be no genetic recombination in this process. Operating methods include nuclear transfer and embryo segmentation. Animal nuclear transplantation is to transfer the nucleus of a cell of an animal into an oocyte whose nucleus has been removed to recombine and develop into a new embryo, which eventually develops into an individual animal. Animals obtained by nuclear transfer are called cloned animals. In this process, our operation objects are cells, and we get recombinant cells.

  Embryo segmentation refers to the technique of cutting early embryos into 2 equal parts, 4 equal parts or 8 equal parts by mechanical methods, and obtaining identical twins or multiple fetuses after transplantation. Descendants from the same embryo have the same genetic material, so embryo division can be regarded as one of the methods of asexual reproduction or cloning of animals.

  Animal cell culture is to remove the relevant tissue from the animal body, disperse it into individual cells, and then put them in a suitable medium to allow these cells to grow and proliferate. The medium is generally a solid medium. The final is to obtain a cell line or cell line. The cells are generally not differentiated during the cultivation process, and may become cancerous when cultured for more than ten generations.

  Plant tissue culture is the cultivation of isolated plant organs, tissues, and cells on artificially-configured culture media under sterile and artificially controlled conditions, giving appropriate culture conditions to induce the production of callus (this step is called For dedifferentiation), and then induce the callus to redifferentiate to form a complete plant. The medium is generally liquid medium, the ultimate goal is to obtain a complete plant.