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What is the relationship between gene transplantation and cloning?

Update time : 2020-04-15

Source : General Biosystems

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What is the relationship between gene transplantation and cloning?

  Gene transplantation is to replace the abnormal genes of the human body or introduce foreign genes to overcome the genetic diseases caused by the abnormality of certain genes or chromosomes of the human body.

  People use modern biological techniques to check which genes in the human body are "good genes", which genes are "bad genes", which genes are normal genes, and which genes are abnormal genes or disease-causing mutant genes. At the same time, it is also possible to artificially synthesize genes, or take out "good genes" from the cloned gene cold storage, replace the inferior genes with high-quality genes, or replace the disease-causing genes with normal genes, so as to relieve the patients' congenital suffering.

  "Clone" is a transliteration from the English "clone", which has three different levels of meaning in the field of biology.

  1. At the molecular level, cloning generally refers to DNA cloning (also called molecular cloning). The meaning is to insert a specific DNA fragment into a vector (such as plasmids and viruses) by recombinant DNA technology, and then self-replicate in the host cell to obtain a large number of identical "populations" of the DNA fragment.

  2. At the cellular level, clonal substance is a cell population formed by the division of a single common ancestral cell. The genes in each cell are the same. For example, a cell colony formed by dividing a cell in an in vitro culture fluid for several generations to form a cell group with the same genetic background is a cell clone. As another example, in vertebrates, when foreign substances (such as bacteria or viruses) invade, specific recognition antibodies will be produced through the immune response. All plasma cells that produce a specific antibody are formed by the division of a B cell. Such a plasma cell population is also a cell clone. Cell cloning is a low-level reproductive method-asexual reproduction, that is, without the combination of the sexes, the progeny and the parent have the same inheritance. The lower the level of biological evolution, the more likely it is to adopt this method of reproduction.

  3. At the individual level, cloning refers to a group of two or more individuals with identical genotypes. For example, two identical twins are a clone! Because they come from the same egg cell, the genetic background is exactly the same. According to this definition, "Dolly" cannot be said to be a clone! Because "Dolly" is just a lonely one. Only when those British embryologists can transplant two or more identical nuclei into two or more identical enucleated egg cells to obtain more than two "Dolly" with the same genetic background can be described by the word cloning. Therefore, in the sensational paper published in Nature in February 1997, the author did not describe Dolly as a clone.